The Human Fossil Record:
A Digital Resource for Research and Education

Specimens in this collection are curated in the Evolutionary Studies Institute at the University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa. Applications to study the original fossil remains and/or queries about these specimens should be directed to Dr. Bernhard Zipfel, Head Curator, Evolutionary Studies Institute ( Queries about the digital representations themselves can be sent to Dr. Matthew Skinner (

Terms of use: the copyright for all digital representations of fossils is held by the Evolutionary Studies Institute (University of Witwatersrand) are they are made available here under an Attribution-Non-Commercial 4.0 (CC BY-NC 4.0) license.

Credit for use of these digital representations should be as follows: Image courtesy of the Evolutionary Studies Institute, University of Witwatersrand and